USB-IF just released some new specifications – R2.1 for Type 2-C and R3.1 for USB-PD. The main update is the ‘Extended Power Range’ aspect that allows up to 200W to be distributed in a Type-C setup that supports the relevant USB-PD profile.
The first USB Power Delivery (USB-PD) specification was released in 2012, and has seen regular updates over the years. Initially, the focus was on enabling fast charging rates for smartphones and other such devices (which were using proprietary charging schemes or USB-BC battery charging specifications). After the release of the Type-C specification in 2014, USB-PD became a hot topic again. In addition to charging, the allure of a single port for both data and energy I / O – especially from the point of view of compact and slim notebooks – brought to the fore the amount of power transferred between a source and the SIC. Prior to the release of USB-PD R3.1, certifications from USB-IF were for devices capable of sizing / sinking up to 100W (slightly less in practical terms). The recently released specifications indicate the mode in R3.0 as ‘Standard Power Range’ (SPR).
USB-PD R3.1 supports three charging models:
- Constant voltage
- Programmable power supply (PPS), and
- Adjustable voltage supply (AVS).
In the constant voltage scheme, the standard power range (SPR) mode supports 3A and 5A at 5V, 9V, 15V, and 20V. A configuration supports between 1 15 and W0W. A A plan requires a special type of cable and can supply up to 100W. The new Extended Power Range (EPR) mode supports current combinations of all voltages and SPRs, and also includes 228V, V36V, and V48VA AA supplies for support up to 2A0W.
In the programmable power supply (PPS) plan available in SPR mode, the limits are limited by the advertising capabilities of the resources and cable. While the programmed voltage range tracks individuals in the static voltage scheme, the actual voltages are between 3..3 V and 9.9V (for VV settings), 11V (for VV settings), 1VV (for 1V V settings), and 21V. May be different (For 20V setting) in stages of 20mV.
In EPR mode, the AVS model allows the voltage to be adjusted between 1V V and 2 28V, 2V V, or V 48V, depending on the 100 mV phase negotiation EPR agreement. The source and sync need to enter this specific EPR mode and the cable between the two needs to support EPR to enable these new voltages.
EPR specifications keep safety in mind by allowing sources to be measured back to 5V with a hard reset in the case of unresponsive downstream siege. This mode also requires sync to periodically communicate with the source ‘keep alive’ messages.
Cables supporting EPR require a mandatory electronic marking that indicates EPR compatibility using the ‘EPR mode enabled’ bit set. Standard Power Range Cable (SPR) only supports up to 100W PD. Receptors and cables that support EPR require additional mechanical considerations to prevent short / arty during the connection process. Towards this end, the mechanical details of the cables as well as the receivers are receiving updates. Erasing is possible during unplugged operations, and this is reduced by the length difference between the CC and the VBUS pin (allowing sufficient resource to detect disconnection events to obtain a current reduction before disconnection). To help with this feature, a snoozer capacitor at the end of the cable is recommended.
EPR enables A 48V to supply up to A, but the cables themselves need to support up to .6 53..65V, and the capacitors need to be valued for V 63V. The electronic mark on the cables is supposed to specify V0V / AA with a visual EPR identification icon for end users.
It is now mandatory to answer ‘cable identification’ questions from a host that sinks more than thumb drive AA or supports USB supporting operations. Additional constraints / parametric adjustments are made for cables to fit for USB 4 operations. Authentication requirements for USB4 activated cables have also been updated. They now need to fully support Thunderbolt capabilities capabilities (including optional modes). Because these authentication requirements are new, and do not specify updates for passive cables, it is possible that USB pass0 passive cables that support full capacity when used with full USB hosts may not operate at full speed with the Legacy Thunderbolt plat platform.
USB – PD is capable of using a single Type-C port for both data and power I / O. In its previous incarnation, it worked well for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets – allowing them to double up even as a power bank. In parallel, advanced gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors have enabled the manufacture of highly efficient and compact power electronics equipment.
Combined with the new USB-PD specifications, allowing for up to 2,240W of power delivery, we will soon see USB-C chargers / adapters enabled on desktop PCs (such as Intel NUCs – even game-centric models) and All-in-One. Currently, these systems still use the power of internal components with internal warts DC-in barrel jacks. With visual solutions for this inconvenience, such powerful systems are bound to see new applications.