Immunity against COVID-1 has been shown to be strong in a recent study.
As a new hospital admission for individuals COVID-19 Continue to decline (1), many places begin to reduce restrictions and return to normal life. Immunity to COVID-19 Increased due to natural immunity after vaccination and infection. However, the question is how long the resistance will remain in (2).
In healthy adults, immunity is acquired through how some kind of infection occurs – through vaccination or by being naturally sick (). Doctors classify immunity as either acquired or natural. Vaccination and antibody transfer result in disease resistance, while infection / recovery and genetic transfer, such as through breastfeeding, result in natural immunity ().
Depending on the type and severity of the infection, the immune system may become stronger or weaker (). At the onset of the COVID-1P epidemic, research showed that the natural resistance to COVID-1P lasted only two to three months (). This has led to concerns that patients with mild COVID-1 may be re-infected after natural immunity.
To determine if mild COVID-1 infection causes long-term immunity, researchers at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis studied the immune responses of eleven people with mild COVID-1 and eleven people with no history of COVID. -1. ()).
During an infection, the body attacks a variety of antigens. Initially, the body’s innate immune response sends immune cells around and kills antigens, regardless of the type of infection.
The body’s adapted immune response then produces B-cells that produce high levels of antibodies specifically designed to fight that antigen, and T-cells to attack infected cells. B-cells also produce plasma cells that make antibodies.
These B- and T-cells will become some memory cells that will recognize that antigen (7). Long-lived plasma cells also reside in the body’s bone marrow and secrete low levels of antibodies to prevent future infections.
There are different types of antibodies that perform different functions. One is immunoglobulin G (IgG), which attaches to bacteria and the immune system () accelerates their consumption. Another is immunoglobulin A (IgA), which is concentrated in the mucosal membrane and protects the body from infection ().
In the study, blood samples were collected at one, four, seven and eleven months after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Bone marrow samples were taken from 1 to 7 of the patients at seven to eight and eleven months of infection.
Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of COVID-19 IgG, IgA, and bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC). In samples taken in the first few months after infection, IgG and IgA levels were higher, as expected. In later samples, antibody laps fell off and flattened in most patients.
Seventy percent of BMPC samples contained antibody-producing cells, and levels of memory B cells were similar to those detected in flu patients. The study suggested that the immune response to COVID-19 infection follows a normal natural immune structure ().
However, this study had some limitations. The researchers did not detect BMPCs in four samples, suggesting that the levels of those cells may be lower than the detection limit. In addition, several patients studied experienced mild cases of COVID-19. It is not unknown if the response will be different for more severe COVID-19 infections.
About the serious infection, the first author Dr. Jackson Turner said in a press release, “It can go either way. Inflammation plays a major role in severe COVID-19, and too much inflammation can lead to a defective immune response. But on the other hand, people who are actually sick often have too many viruses in their body.” And there may be a very good immune response to the virus around. So it’s not clear. We should repeat the study in people with moderate to severe infections to see if they are likely to be safe from re-infection. “
- CDC. COVID data tracker. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published March 28, 2020 Accessed May 2, 2021. https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#new-h hospital-adifications
- Goldberg C, Pollock A. Bloomberg – Are you a robot? www.bloomberg.com. Published May 2, 2021 https://www.bloomberg.com/news/newsletters/2021-05-24/ what-does-covid-immune-look-like
- Dinerstein c. Is the natural immunity or vaccine good? American Council on Science and Health. Published March 19, 2021. Accessed May 2, 2021. https://www.acsh.org/news/2021/03/19/n Natural-immune-or-vaccination-better-15409
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Cancer Institute. Understanding how the immune system works. NIH; 200. Accessed May 2, 2021. http://www.imgt.org/IMGTeducation/Tutorials/ImmuneSystem/UK/the_immune_system.pdf
- Long QX, Tang XJ, ShiQL, et al. Clinical and immunoassay of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nature therapy. 2020; 2. doi: 10.1038 / s41591-020-0965-6
- Turner JS, Kim W, Caladina E, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-term bone marrow plasma cells in humans. Published online May 2, 2021. doi: 10.03838 // s418686-0-01-0-646477-.
- Bucher K. Immune response. Accessed May 26, 2021. https://cdn.jamanetwork.com/ama/content_public/journal/jama/933829/jpg150012fa.png?Expires=1625020944&Signature=UbxiAQKTEPEWiPzg3EkfPoZFHGriCBCcQ1ws9VnY0E1D1cehI493KsHKmb3r6vL51r80yyNuGbvxrD91nmMtIou1Ybzwvv~Xlr0CvE-~oygqheGGU~o6wayTIISHrY~rk8M-OoxSuOEAy2px0oC93Z2KfJtEcU1Jeh16XCYQ4k8GPUIMFkmIN3kwydjNjjbaIATTrnUXgxniCCwlN3XAeDAwCfFPl9KgjrYgHyQvj8-M28jv8a6TaBQOk0ZSJgJYfVpFvrbwd1xn-- 7QUq8Ywbo4OlV2KJ2jeNERUZwQ8Norw1-rYOac-lLML4aUOICInU5-SuLW3wI2gjtzNn6Rdw __ and key-pair id = APKAIE5G5CRDK6RD3PGA
- Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay